Positronium imaging with the novel multiphoton PET scanner
P. Moskal, K. Dulski, N. Chug, C. Curceanu, E. Czerwiński, M. Dadgar, J. Gajewski, A. Gajos, G. Grudzień, B.C. Hiesmayr, K. Kacprzak, Ł. Kapłon, H. Karimi, K. Klimaszewski, G. Korcyl, P. Kowalski, T. Kozik, N. Krawczyk, W. Krzemień, E. Kubicz, P. Małczak, S. Niedźwiecki, M. Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M. Pędziwiatr, L. Raczyński, J. Raj, A. Ruciński, S. Sharma, Shivani, R.Y. Shopa, M. Silarski, M. Skurzok, E.Ł. Stępień, M. Szczepanek, F. Tayefi, W. Wiślicki
In vivo assessment of cancer and precise location of altered tissues at initial stages of molecular disorders are important diagnostic challenges. Positronium is copiously formed in the free molecular spaces in the patient?s body during positron emission tomography (PET). The positronium properties vary according to the size of inter- and intramolecular voids and the concentration of molecules in them such as, e.g., molecular oxygen, O2; therefore, positronium imaging may provide information about disease progression during the initial stages of molecular alterations. Current PET systems do not allow acquisition of positronium images. This study presents a new method that enables positronium imaging by simultaneous registration of annihilation photons and deexcitation photons from pharmaceuticals labeled with radionuclides. The first positronium imaging of a phantom built from cardiac myxoma and adipose tissue is demonstrated. It is anticipated that positronium imaging will substantially
enhance the specificity of PET diagnostics.
The J-PET detector - a tool for precision studies of ortho-positronium decays
K. Dulski, S.D. Bass, J. Chhokar, N. Chug, C. Curceanu, E. Czerwiński, M. Dadgar, J. Gajewski, A. Gajos, M. Gorgol, R. Del Grande, B.C. Hiesmayr, B. Jasińska, K. Kacprzak, Ł. Kapłon, H. Karimi, D. Kisielewska, K. Klimaszewski, P. Kopka, G. Korcyl, P. Kowalski, T. Kozik, N. Krawczyk, W. Krzemień, E. Kubicz, P. Małczak, M. Mohammed, Sz. Niedźwiecki, M. Pałka, M. Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M. Pędziwiatr, L. Raczyński7, J. Raj, A. Ruciński, S. Sharma, Shivani, R.Y. Shopa, M. Silarski, M. Skurzok, E. Ł. Stępień, F. Tayefi, W. Wiślicki, B. Zgardzińska, P. Moskal
The J-PET tomograph is constructed from plastic scintillator strips arranged axially in concentric cylindrical layers. It enables investigations of positronium decays by measurement of the time, position, polarization and energy deposited by photons in the scintillators, in contrast to studies conducted so far with crystal and semiconductor based detection systems where the key selection of events is based on the measurement of the photons energies. In this article we show that the J-PET tomography system constructed solely from plastic scintillator detectors is capable of exclusive measurements of the decays of ortho-positronium atoms. We present the first positronium production results and its lifetime distribution measurements. The obtained results prove the capability of the J-PET tomograph for (i) fundamental studies of positronium decays (in particular test of discrete symmetries in purely leptonic systems), (ii) positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, as well as (iii) molecular imaging diagnostics and (iv) observation of entanglement
Performance assessment of the 2gamma positronium imaging with the total-body PET scanners
P. Moskal, D. Kisielewska, Z. Bura, C. Chhokar, C. Curceanu, E. Czerwiński, M. Dadgar, K. Dulski, J. Gajewski, A. Gajos, M. Gorgol, R. Del Grande, B. C. Hiesmayr, B. Jasińska, K. Kacprzak, A. Kamińska, Ł. Kapłon, H. Karimi, G. Korcyl, P. Kowalski, N. Krawczyk, W. Krzemień, T. Kozik, E. Kubicz, P. Małczak, M. Mohammed, Sz. Niedźwiecki, M. Pałka, M. Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M. Pędziwiatr, L. Raczyński, J. Raj, A. Ruciński, S. Sharma, Shivani, R. Y. Shopa, M. Silarski, M. Skurzok, E. Ł. Stępień, S. Vandenberghe, W. Wiślicki, B. Zgardzińska
In living organisms the positron-electron annihilation (occurring during the PET imaging) proceeds in about 30% via creation of a metastable ortho-positronium atom. In the tissue, due to the pick-off and conversion processes, over 98% of ortho-positronia annihilate into two 511~keV photons. In this article we assess the feasibility for reconstruction of the mean ortho-positronium lifetime image based on annihilations into two photons. The main objectives of this work include: (i) estimation of the sensitivity of the total-body PET scanners for the ortho-positronium mean lifetime imaging using 2gamma annihilations, and (ii) estimation of the spatial and time resolution of the ortho-positronium image as a function of the coincidence resolving time (CRT) of the scanner. Simulations are conducted assuming that radiopharmaceutical is labelled with 44Sc isotope emitting one positron and one prompt gamma. The image is reconstructed on the basis of triple coincidence events. The ortho-positronium lifetime spectrum is determined for each voxel of the image. Calculations were performed for cases of total-body detectors build of (i) LYSO scintillators as used in the EXPLORER PET, and (ii) plastic scintillators as anticipated for the cost-effective total-body J-PET scanner. To assess the spatial and time resolution the three cases were considered assuming that CRT is equal to 140ps, 50ps and 10ps. The estimated total-body PET sensitivity for the registration and selection of image forming triple coincidences is larger by a factor of 12.2 (for LYSO PET) and by factor of 4.7 (for plastic PET) with respect to the sensitivity for the standard 2gamma imaging by LYSO PET scanners with AFOV=20cm.
Studies of the ortho-Positronium lifetime for cancer diagnostics
Z. Bura, K. Dulski, E. Kubicz, P. Małczak, M. Pędziwiatr, M. Szczepanek, E.Ł. Stępień, P. Moskal
Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) is a technique based on the analysis of the lifetime of positronium emitted from implanted or delivered positronium donors. This technique employs the lifetime and intensity dependence on the structure of analyzed material. Due to this specific features, PALS might be used in further research protocols and clinical studies for cancer diagnostic purposes. This article reports the progress in the study design, main objectives of the study, protocols of measurement sand data analysis and further perspective of this study. The main goal of this work was to show the effectiveness of this method and progress in its development. For this purpose, colorectal cancer was examined.