Developing a Novel Positronium Biomarker for Cardiac Myxoma Imaging
P. Moskal, E. Kubicz, G. Grudzień, E. Czerwiński, K. Dulski, B. Leszczyński, S. Niedźwiecki, E.Ł. Stępień
Purpose: Cardiac myxoma (CM), the most common cardiac tumor in adults, accounts for 50?75% of benign cardiac tumors. The diagnosis of CM is often elusive, especially in young stroke survivors and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the initial technique for the differential diagnostics of CM. Less invasive cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are not available for the majority of cardiac patients. Here, a robust imaging approach, ortho-Positronium (o-Ps) imaging, is presented to determine cardiac myxoma extracted from patients undergoing urgent cardiac surgery due to unexpected atrial masses. We aimed to assess if the o-Ps atom, produced copiously in intramolecular voids during the PET imaging, serves as a biomarker for CM diagnosing.
Methods: Six perioperative CM and normal (adipose) tissue samples from patients, with primary diagnosis confirmed by the histopathology examination, were examined using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and micro-CT. Additionally, cell cultures and confocal microscopy techniques were used to picture cell morphology and origin.
Results: We observed significant shortening in the mean o-Ps lifetime in tumor with compare to normal tissues: an average value of 1.92(02) ns and 2.72(05) ns for CM and the adipose tissue, respectively. Microscopic differences between tumor samples, confirmed in histopathology examination and micro-CT, did not influenced the major positronium imaging results.
Conclusions: Our findings, combined with o-Ps lifetime analysis, revealed the novel emerging positronium imaging marker (o-PS) for cardiovascular imaging. This method opens the new perspective to facilitate the quantitative in vivo assessment of intracardiac masses on a molecular (nanoscale) level.
Positronium imaging with the novel multiphoton PET scanner
P. Moskal, K. Dulski, N. Chug, C. Curceanu, E. Czerwiński, M. Dadgar, J. Gajewski, A. Gajos, G. Grudzień, B.C. Hiesmayr, K. Kacprzak, Ł. Kapłon, H. Karimi, K. Klimaszewski, G. Korcyl, P. Kowalski, T. Kozik, N. Krawczyk, W. Krzemień, E. Kubicz, P. Małczak, S. Niedźwiecki, M. Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M. Pędziwiatr, L. Raczyński, J. Raj, A. Ruciński, S. Sharma, Shivani, R.Y. Shopa, M. Silarski, M. Skurzok, E.Ł. Stępień, M. Szczepanek, F. Tayefi, W. Wiślicki
In vivo assessment of cancer and precise location of altered tissues at initial stages of molecular disorders are important diagnostic challenges. Positronium is copiously formed in the free molecular spaces in the patient?s body during positron emission tomography (PET). The positronium properties vary according to the size of inter- and intramolecular voids and the concentration of molecules in them such as, e.g., molecular oxygen, O2; therefore, positronium imaging may provide information about disease progression during the initial stages of molecular alterations. Current PET systems do not allow acquisition of positronium images. This study presents a new method that enables positronium imaging by simultaneous registration of annihilation photons and deexcitation photons from pharmaceuticals labeled with radionuclides. The first positronium imaging of a phantom built from cardiac myxoma and adipose tissue is demonstrated. It is anticipated that positronium imaging will substantially
enhance the specificity of PET diagnostics.