Realistic Total-Body J-PET Geometry Optimization--Monte Carlo Study
J. Baran, W. Krzemień, L. Raczyński, M. Bała, A. Coussat, S. Parzych, N. Chug, E. Czerwiński, C. Oana Curceanu, M. Dadgar, K. Dulski, K. Eliyan, J. Gajewski, A. Gajos, B. Hiesmayr, K. Kacprzak, Ł. Kapłon, K. Klimaszewski, G. Korcyl, T. Kozik, D. Kumar, S. Niedźwiecki, D. Panek, E. Perez del Rio, A. Ruciński, S. Sharma, Shivani, R.Y. Shopa, M. Skurzok, E. Stępień, F. Tayefiardebili, K. Tayefiardebili, W. Wiślicki, P. Moskal
Comparative studies of plastic scintillator strips with high technical attenuation length for the total-body J-PET scanner
Ł. Kapłon, J. Baran, N. Chug, A. Coussat, C. Curceanu, E. Czerwiński, M. Dadgar, K. Dulski, J. Gajewski, A. Gajos, B. Hiesmayr, E. Kavya Valsan, K. Klimaszewski, G. Korcyl, T. Kozik, W. Krzemień, D. Kumar, G. Moskal, S. Niedźwiecki, D. Panek, S. Parzych, E. Pérez del Rio, L. Raczyński, A. Ruciński, S. Sharma, S. Shivani, R. Shopa, M. Silarski, M. Skurzok, E. Stępień, F. Tayefi Ardebili, K. Tayefi Ardebili, W. Wiślicki, P. Moskal
Plastic scintillator strips are considered as one of the promising solutions for the cost-effective construction of total-body positron emission tomography, (PET) system. The purpose of the performed measurements is to compare the transparency of long plastic scintillators with dimensions 6 mm
1000 mm and with all surfaces polished. Six different types of commercial, general purpose, blue-emitting plastic scintillators with low attenuation of visible light were tested, namely: polyvinyl toluene-based BC-408, EJ-200, RP-408, and polystyrene-based Epic, SP32 and UPS-923A. For determination of the best type of plastic scintillator for total-body Jagiellonian positron emission tomograph (TB-J-PET) construction, emission and transmission spectra, and technical attenuation length (TAL) of blue light-emitting by the scintillators were measured and compared. The TAL values were determined with the use of UV lamp as excitation source, and photodiode as light detector. Emission spectra of investigated scintillators have maxima in the range from 420 nm to 429 nm. The BC-408 and EJ-200 have the highest transmittance values of about 90% at the maximum emission wavelength measured through a 6 mm thick scintillator strip and the highest technical attenuation length reaching about 2000 mm, allowing assembly of long detection modules for time-of-flight (TOF) J-PET scanners. Influence of the 6 mm × 6 mm, 12 mm × 6 mm, 24 mm × 6 mm cross-sections of the 1000 mm long EJ-200 plastic scintillator on the TAL and signal intensity was measured. The highest TAL value was determined for samples with 24 mm × 6 mm cross-section.
J-PET detection modules based on plastic scintillators for performing studies with positron and positronium beams
S. Sharma, J. Baran, R.S. Brusa, R. Caravita, N. Chug, A. Coussat, C. Curceanu, E. Czerwinski, M. Dadgar, K. Dulski, K. Eliyan, A. Gajos, B.C. Hiesmayr, K. Kacprzak, L. Kaplon, K. Klimaszewski, P. Konieczka, G. Korcyl, T. Kozik, W. Krzemien D. Kumar, S. Mariazzi, S. Niedźwiecki, L. Panasa, S. Parzych, L. Povolo, E. Perez del Rio, L. Raczynski Shivani, R.Y. Shopa, M. Skurzok, E.L. Stepien, F. Tayefi, K. Tayefi, W. Wislicki and P. Moskal
The J-PET detector, which consists of inexpensive plastic scintillators, has demonstrated its potential in the study of fundamental physics. In recent years, a prototype with 192 plastic scintillators arranged in 3 layers has been optimized for the study of positronium decays. This allows performing precision tests of discrete symmetries (C, P, T) in the decays of positronium atoms. Moreover, thanks to the possibility of measuring the polarization direction of the photon based on Compton scattering, the predicted entanglement between the linear polarization of annihilation photons in positronium decays can also be studied. Recently, a new J-PET prototype was commissioned, based on a modular design of detection units. Each module consists of 13 plastic scintillators and can be used as a stand-alone, compact and portable detection unit. In this paper, the main features of the J-PET detector, the modular prototype and their applications for possible studies with positron and positronium beams are discussed. Preliminary results of the first test experiment performed on two detection units in the continuous positron beam recently developed at the Antimatter Laboratory (AML) of Trento are also reported.
TOF MLEM Adaptation for the Total-Body J-PET with a Realistic Analytical System Response Matrix
R.Y. Shopa, J. Baran, K. Klimaszewski, W. Krzemień, L. Raczyński, W. Wiślicki, K. Brzeziński, N. Chug, A. Coussat, C. Curceanu, E. Czerwiński, M. Dadgar, K. Dulski, J. Gajewski, A. Gajos, B.C. Hiesmayr, E. Kavya Valsan, G. Korcyl, T. Kozik, D. Kumar, Ł. Kapłon, G. Moskal, S. Niedźwiecki, D. Panek, S. Parzych, E. Pérez del Rio, A. Ruciński, S. Sharma, Shivani, M. Silarski, M. Skurzok, E. Stepień, F. Tayefi Ardebili, K. Tayefi Ardebili, P. Moskal
We report a study of the original image reconstruction algorithm based on the time-of-flight maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (TOF MLEM), developed for the total-body (TB) Jagiellonian PET (J-PET) scanners. The method is applicable to generic cylindrical or modular multi-layer layouts and is extendable to multi-photon imaging. The system response matrix (SRM) is represented as a set of analytical functions, uniquely defined for each pair of plastic scintillator strips used for the detection. A realistic resolution model (RM) in detector space is derived from fitting the Monte Carlo simulated emissions and detections of annihilation photons on oblique transverse planes. Additional kernels embedded in SRM account for TOF, parallax effect and axial smearing. The algorithm was tested on datasets, simulated in GATE for the NEMA IEC and static XCAT phantoms inside a 24-module 2-layer TB J-PET. Compared to the reference TOF MLEM with none or a shift-invariant RM, an improvement was observed, as evaluated by the analysis of image quality, difference images and ground truth metrics. We also reconstructed the data with additive contributions, pre-filtered geometrically and with non-TOF scatter correction applied. Despite some deterioration, the obtained results still capitalise on the realistic RM with better edge preservation and superior ground truth metrics. The envisioned prospects of the TOF MLEM with analytical SRM include its application in multi-photon imaging and further upgrade to account for the non-collinearity, positron range and other factors.
ProTheRaMon - a GATE simulation framework for proton therapy range monitoring using PET imaging
D. Borys, J. Baran, K.W. Brzezinski, J. Gajewski, N. Chug, A. Coussat, E. Czerwiński, M. Dadgar, K. Dulski, K. Valsan Eliyan, A. Gajos, K. Kacprzak, Ł. Kapłon, K. Klimaszewski, P. Konieczka, R. Kopec, G. Korcyl, T. Kozik, W. Krzemień, D. Kumar, A. John Lomax, K. McNamara, S. Niedźwiecki, P. Olko, D. Panek, S. Parzych, E. Pérez del Río, L. Raczyński, S. Sharma, S. Shivani, R.Y. Shopa, T. Skóra, M. Skurzok, P. Stasica, E. Stępień, K. Tayefi Ardebili, F. Tayefi, D. Charles Weber, C. Winterhalter, W. Wiślicki, P. Moskal, A. Rucinski
Objective: This paper reports on the implementation and shows examples of the use of the ProTheRaMon framework for simulating the delivery of proton therapy treatment plans and range monitoring using positron emission tomography (PET). ProTheRaMon offers complete processing of proton therapy treatment plans, patient CT geometries, and intra-treatment PET imaging, taking into account therapy and imaging coordinate systems and activity decay during the PET imaging protocol specific to a given proton therapy facility. We present the ProTheRaMon framework and illustrate its potential use case and data processing steps for a patient treated at the Cyclotron Centre Bronowice (CCB) proton therapy center in Krakow, Poland. Approach: The ProTheRaMon framework is based on GATE Monte Carlo software, the CASToR reconstruction package and in-house developed Python and bash scripts. The framework consists of five separated simulation and data processing steps, that can be further optimized according to the user's needs and specific settings of a given proton therapy facility and PET scanner design. Main results: ProTheRaMon is presented using example data from a patient treated at CCB and the J-PET scanner to demonstrate the application of the framework for proton therapy range monitoring. The output of each simulation and data processing stage is described and visualized. Significance: We demonstrate that the ProTheRaMon simulation platform is a high-performance tool, capable of running on a computational cluster and suitable for multi-parameter studies, with databases consisting of large number of patients, as well as different PET scanner geometries and settings for range monitoring in a clinical environment. Due to its modular structure, the ProTheRaMon framework can be adjusted for different proton therapy centers and/or different PET detector geometries. It is available to the community via github.
Development of the Normalization Method for the Jagiellonian PET Scanner
A. Coussat, W. Krzemien, J. Baran, S. Parzych
This work aims at applying the theory of the component-based normalization to the Jagiellonian PET
scanner, currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. In any positron emission tomography acquisition, efficiency along a line-of-response can vary due to several physical and geometrical
effects, leading to severe artifacts in the reconstructed image. To mitigate these effects, a normalization
coefficient is applied to each line-of-response, defined as the product of several components. The specificity of the Jagiellonian PET scanner geometry is taken into account. The results obtained from the
GATE simulations are compared with the preliminary results obtained from the experimental data.