Realistic Total-Body J-PET Geometry Optimization--Monte Carlo Study
J. Baran, W. Krzemień, L. Raczyński, M. Bała, A. Coussat, S. Parzych, N. Chug, E. Czerwiński, C. Oana Curceanu, M. Dadgar, K. Dulski, K. Eliyan, J. Gajewski, A. Gajos, B. Hiesmayr, K. Kacprzak, Ł. Kapłon, K. Klimaszewski, G. Korcyl, T. Kozik, D. Kumar, S. Niedźwiecki, D. Panek, E. Perez del Rio, A. Ruciński, S. Sharma, Shivani, R.Y. Shopa, M. Skurzok, E. Stępień, F. Tayefiardebili, K. Tayefiardebili, W. Wiślicki, P. Moskal
Comparative studies of the sensitivities of sparse and full geometries of Total-Body PET scanners built from crystals and plastic scintillators
M. Dadgar*, S. Parzych, J. Baran, N. Chug, C. Curceanu, E. Czerwiński, K. Dulski, K. Elyan, A. Gajos, B.C. Hiesmayr, Ł. Kapłon, K. Klimaszewski, P. Konieczka, G. Korcyl, T. Kozik, W. Krzemień, D. Kumar, S. Niedźwiecki, D. Panek, E. Perez del Rio, L. Raczyński, S. Sharma, Shivani, R.Y. Shopa, M. Skurzok, E. L. Stępień, F. Tayefi Ardebili, K. Tayefi Ardebili, S. Vandenberghe, W. Wiślicki and P. Moskal
Background: Alongside the benefits of Total-Body imaging modalities, such as higher sensitivity, single-bed position, low dose imaging, etc., their final construction cost prevents worldwide utilization. The main aim of this study is to present a simulation-based comparison of the sensitivities of existing and currently developed tomographs to introduce a cost-efficient solution for
constructing a Total-Body PET scanner based on plastic scintillators.
Methods: For the case of this study, eight tomographs based on the uEXPLORER configuration with different scintillator materials (BGO, LYSO), axial field-of-view (97.4 cm and 194.8 cm), and detector configuration (full and sparse) were simulated. In addition, 8 J-PET scanners with different configurations, such as various axial field-of-view (200 cm and 250 cm), the different cross-sections of plastic scintillator, and the multiple numbers of the
plastic scintillator layers (2, 3, and 4), based on J-PET technology have been simulated by GATE software. Furthermore, Biograph Vision has been simulated to compare the results with standard PET scans. Two types of simulations have been performed. The first one with a centrally located source with a diameter of 1mm and a length of 250 cm, and the second one with the same source inside a water-filled cylindrical phantom with a diameter of 20 cm and a length of 183 cm.
Results: With regards to sensitivity, among all the proposed scanners, the ones constructed with BGO crystals give the best performance (? 350 cps/kBq at the center). The utilization of sparse geometry or LYSO crystals significantly lowers the achievable sensitivity of such systems. The J-PET design gives a similar sensitivity to the sparse LYSO crystal-based detectors while having full detector coverage over the body. Moreover, it provides uniform sensitivity over the body
with additional gain on its sides and provides the possibility for high-quality brain
Conclusion: Taking into account not only the sensitivity but also the price of the Total-Body PET tomographs, which till now was one of the main obstacles in their widespread clinical availability, the J-PET tomography system based on plastic scintillators could be a cost-efficient alternative for Total-Body PET scanners.
Efficiency determination of J-PET: first plastic scintillators-based PET scanner
S. Sharma, J. Baran, N. Chug, C. Curceanu, E. Czerwiński, M. Dadgar, K. Dulski, K. Eliyan, A. Gajos, N. Gupta?Sharma, B. C. Hiesmayr, K. Kacprzak, Ł. Kapłon, K. Klimaszewski, P. Konieczka, G. Korcyl, T. Kozik, W. Krzemień, D. Kumar, Sz. Niedźwiecki, D. Panek, S. Parzych, E. Perez del Rio, L. Raczyński, Shivani, R. Y. Shopa, M. Skurzok, E. Ł. Stępień, F. Tayefi, K. Tayefi , W. Wiślicki and P. Moskal
The Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomograph is the 3?layer prototype
of the first scanner based on plastic scintillators, consisting of 192 half?metre?long strips
with readouts at both ends. Compared to crystal?based detectors, plastic scintillators
are several times cheaper and could be considered as a more economical alternative to
crystal scintillators in future PETs. JPET is also a first multi?photon PET prototype. For the
development of multi?photon detection, with photon characterized by the continu?
ous energy spectrum, it is important to estimate the efficiency of J?PET as a function
of energy deposition. The aim of this work is to determine the registration efficiency
of the J?PET tomograph as a function of energy deposition by incident photons and
the intrinsic efficiency of the J?PET scanner in detecting photons of different incident
energies. In this study, 3?hit events are investigated, where 2?hits are caused by 511 keV
photons emitted in e+e? annihilations, while the third hit is caused by one of the
scattered photons. The scattered photon is used to accurately measure the scattering
angle and thus the energy deposition. Two hits by a primary and a scattered photon
are sufficient to calculate the scattering angle of a photon, while the third hit ensures
the precise labeling of the 511 keV photons.
By comparing experimental and simulated energy distribution spectra, the
registration efficiency of the J?PET scanner was determined in the energy deposition
range of 70?270 keV, where it varies between 20 and 100%. In addition, the intrinsic
efficiency of the J?PET was also determined as a function of the energy of the incident
A method for determining registration efficiency as a function of energy
deposition and intrinsic efficiency as a function of incident photon energy of the J?PET
scanner was demonstrated. This study is crucial for evaluating the performance of the
scanner based on plastic scintillators and its applications as a standard and multi?pho?
ton PET systems. The method may be also used in the calibration of Compton?cameras
developed for the ion?beam therapy monitoring and simultaneous multi?radionuclide
imaging in nuclear medicine.
Comparative studies of plastic scintillator strips with high technical attenuation length for the total-body J-PET scanner
Ł. Kapłon, J. Baran, N. Chug, A. Coussat, C. Curceanu, E. Czerwiński, M. Dadgar, K. Dulski, J. Gajewski, A. Gajos, B. Hiesmayr, E. Kavya Valsan, K. Klimaszewski, G. Korcyl, T. Kozik, W. Krzemień, D. Kumar, G. Moskal, S. Niedźwiecki, D. Panek, S. Parzych, E. Pérez del Rio, L. Raczyński, A. Ruciński, S. Sharma, S. Shivani, R. Shopa, M. Silarski, M. Skurzok, E. Stępień, F. Tayefi Ardebili, K. Tayefi Ardebili, W. Wiślicki, P. Moskal
Plastic scintillator strips are considered as one of the promising solutions for the cost-effective construction of total-body positron emission tomography, (PET) system. The purpose of the performed measurements is to compare the transparency of long plastic scintillators with dimensions 6 mm
1000 mm and with all surfaces polished. Six different types of commercial, general purpose, blue-emitting plastic scintillators with low attenuation of visible light were tested, namely: polyvinyl toluene-based BC-408, EJ-200, RP-408, and polystyrene-based Epic, SP32 and UPS-923A. For determination of the best type of plastic scintillator for total-body Jagiellonian positron emission tomograph (TB-J-PET) construction, emission and transmission spectra, and technical attenuation length (TAL) of blue light-emitting by the scintillators were measured and compared. The TAL values were determined with the use of UV lamp as excitation source, and photodiode as light detector. Emission spectra of investigated scintillators have maxima in the range from 420 nm to 429 nm. The BC-408 and EJ-200 have the highest transmittance values of about 90% at the maximum emission wavelength measured through a 6 mm thick scintillator strip and the highest technical attenuation length reaching about 2000 mm, allowing assembly of long detection modules for time-of-flight (TOF) J-PET scanners. Influence of the 6 mm × 6 mm, 12 mm × 6 mm, 24 mm × 6 mm cross-sections of the 1000 mm long EJ-200 plastic scintillator on the TAL and signal intensity was measured. The highest TAL value was determined for samples with 24 mm × 6 mm cross-section.
J-PET detection modules based on plastic scintillators for performing studies with positron and positronium beams
S. Sharma, J. Baran, R.S. Brusa, R. Caravita, N. Chug, A. Coussat, C. Curceanu, E. Czerwinski, M. Dadgar, K. Dulski, K. Eliyan, A. Gajos, B.C. Hiesmayr, K. Kacprzak, L. Kaplon, K. Klimaszewski, P. Konieczka, G. Korcyl, T. Kozik, W. Krzemien D. Kumar, S. Mariazzi, S. Niedźwiecki, L. Panasa, S. Parzych, L. Povolo, E. Perez del Rio, L. Raczynski Shivani, R.Y. Shopa, M. Skurzok, E.L. Stepien, F. Tayefi, K. Tayefi, W. Wislicki and P. Moskal
The J-PET detector, which consists of inexpensive plastic scintillators, has demonstrated its potential in the study of fundamental physics. In recent years, a prototype with 192 plastic scintillators arranged in 3 layers has been optimized for the study of positronium decays. This allows performing precision tests of discrete symmetries (C, P, T) in the decays of positronium atoms. Moreover, thanks to the possibility of measuring the polarization direction of the photon based on Compton scattering, the predicted entanglement between the linear polarization of annihilation photons in positronium decays can also be studied. Recently, a new J-PET prototype was commissioned, based on a modular design of detection units. Each module consists of 13 plastic scintillators and can be used as a stand-alone, compact and portable detection unit. In this paper, the main features of the J-PET detector, the modular prototype and their applications for possible studies with positron and positronium beams are discussed. Preliminary results of the first test experiment performed on two detection units in the continuous positron beam recently developed at the Antimatter Laboratory (AML) of Trento are also reported.
TOF MLEM Adaptation for the Total-Body J-PET with a Realistic Analytical System Response Matrix
R.Y. Shopa, J. Baran, K. Klimaszewski, W. Krzemień, L. Raczyński, W. Wiślicki, K. Brzeziński, N. Chug, A. Coussat, C. Curceanu, E. Czerwiński, M. Dadgar, K. Dulski, J. Gajewski, A. Gajos, B.C. Hiesmayr, E. Kavya Valsan, G. Korcyl, T. Kozik, D. Kumar, Ł. Kapłon, G. Moskal, S. Niedźwiecki, D. Panek, S. Parzych, E. Pérez del Rio, A. Ruciński, S. Sharma, Shivani, M. Silarski, M. Skurzok, E. Stepień, F. Tayefi Ardebili, K. Tayefi Ardebili, P. Moskal
We report a study of the original image reconstruction algorithm based on the time-of-flight maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (TOF MLEM), developed for the total-body (TB) Jagiellonian PET (J-PET) scanners. The method is applicable to generic cylindrical or modular multi-layer layouts and is extendable to multi-photon imaging. The system response matrix (SRM) is represented as a set of analytical functions, uniquely defined for each pair of plastic scintillator strips used for the detection. A realistic resolution model (RM) in detector space is derived from fitting the Monte Carlo simulated emissions and detections of annihilation photons on oblique transverse planes. Additional kernels embedded in SRM account for TOF, parallax effect and axial smearing. The algorithm was tested on datasets, simulated in GATE for the NEMA IEC and static XCAT phantoms inside a 24-module 2-layer TB J-PET. Compared to the reference TOF MLEM with none or a shift-invariant RM, an improvement was observed, as evaluated by the analysis of image quality, difference images and ground truth metrics. We also reconstructed the data with additive contributions, pre-filtered geometrically and with non-TOF scatter correction applied. Despite some deterioration, the obtained results still capitalise on the realistic RM with better edge preservation and superior ground truth metrics. The envisioned prospects of the TOF MLEM with analytical SRM include its application in multi-photon imaging and further upgrade to account for the non-collinearity, positron range and other factors.
Investigation of novel preclinical Total Body PET designed with J-PET technology: A simulation study
M. Dadgar, S. Parzych, F. Tayefi Ardebili, J. Baran, N. Chug, C. Curceanu, E. Czerwiński, K. Dulski, K. Eliyan, A. Gajos, B.C. Hiesmayr, K. Kacprzak, K. Klimaszewski, P. Konieczka, G. Korcyl, T. Kozik, W. Krzemień, D. Kumar, S. Niedźwiecki, D. Panek, E. Perez del Rio, L. Raczyński, S. Sharma, R.Y. Shopa, M. Skurzok, K. Tayefi Ardebili, S. Vandenberghe, W. Wiślicki, E.Ł. Stępień, P. Moskal
The growing interest in human-grade Total Body PET systems has also application in small animal research. Due to the existing limitations in human-based studies involving drug development and novel treatment monitoring, animalbased research became a necessary step for testing and protocol preparation. In this simulation-based study two unconventional, cost effective small animal Total Body PET scanners (for mouse and rat studies) have been investigated in order to inspect their feasibility for preclinical research. They were designed with the novel technology explored by the Jagiellonian PET Collaboration (J-PET). Two main PET characteristics: sensitivity and spatial resolution were mainly inspected to evaluate their performance. Moreover, the impact of the scintillator dimension and time-offlight on the latter parameter were examined in order to design the most efficient tomographs. The presented results show that for mouse TB J-PET the achievable system sensitivity is equal to 2.35% and volumetric spatial resolution to 9.46 +- 0.54 mm3, while for rat TB J-PET they are equal to 2.6% and 14.11 ? 0.80 mm3, respectively. Furthermore, it was shown that the designed tomographs are almost parallax-free systems, hence they resolve the problem of the acceptance criterion trade-off between enhancing spatial resolution and reducing sensitivity.
ProTheRaMon - a GATE simulation framework for proton therapy range monitoring using PET imaging
D. Borys, J. Baran, K.W. Brzezinski, J. Gajewski, N. Chug, A. Coussat, E. Czerwiński, M. Dadgar, K. Dulski, K. Valsan Eliyan, A. Gajos, K. Kacprzak, Ł. Kapłon, K. Klimaszewski, P. Konieczka, R. Kopec, G. Korcyl, T. Kozik, W. Krzemień, D. Kumar, A. John Lomax, K. McNamara, S. Niedźwiecki, P. Olko, D. Panek, S. Parzych, E. Pérez del Río, L. Raczyński, S. Sharma, S. Shivani, R.Y. Shopa, T. Skóra, M. Skurzok, P. Stasica, E. Stępień, K. Tayefi Ardebili, F. Tayefi, D. Charles Weber, C. Winterhalter, W. Wiślicki, P. Moskal, A. Rucinski
Objective: This paper reports on the implementation and shows examples of the use of the ProTheRaMon framework for simulating the delivery of proton therapy treatment plans and range monitoring using positron emission tomography (PET). ProTheRaMon offers complete processing of proton therapy treatment plans, patient CT geometries, and intra-treatment PET imaging, taking into account therapy and imaging coordinate systems and activity decay during the PET imaging protocol specific to a given proton therapy facility. We present the ProTheRaMon framework and illustrate its potential use case and data processing steps for a patient treated at the Cyclotron Centre Bronowice (CCB) proton therapy center in Krakow, Poland. Approach: The ProTheRaMon framework is based on GATE Monte Carlo software, the CASToR reconstruction package and in-house developed Python and bash scripts. The framework consists of five separated simulation and data processing steps, that can be further optimized according to the user's needs and specific settings of a given proton therapy facility and PET scanner design. Main results: ProTheRaMon is presented using example data from a patient treated at CCB and the J-PET scanner to demonstrate the application of the framework for proton therapy range monitoring. The output of each simulation and data processing stage is described and visualized. Significance: We demonstrate that the ProTheRaMon simulation platform is a high-performance tool, capable of running on a computational cluster and suitable for multi-parameter studies, with databases consisting of large number of patients, as well as different PET scanner geometries and settings for range monitoring in a clinical environment. Due to its modular structure, the ProTheRaMon framework can be adjusted for different proton therapy centers and/or different PET detector geometries. It is available to the community via github.
Decoherence Puzzle in Measurements of Photons Originating from Electron-Positron Annihilation
S. Sharma, D. Kumar, P. Moskal
The entanglement of photons originating from electron-positron annihilation has not been experimentally proven. owever, the independent experiments performed so far unanimously confirm that the correlation between the linear polarizations of back-to-back photons from electron?positron annihilation is
consistent with the assumption that these photons are entangled in the polarization. Yet, unexpectedly,
recent experiments differ as regards the correlation of polarization direction of back-to-back photons
after the decoherence induced by the scattering of one of these photons on the electron in the scattering
material. In one of the experiments, the correlation before and after the decoherence of the photon state
is the same, and in the other experiment, the scattering of one photon leads to a significant decrease
in this correlation. Here we discuss this puzzle. Decoherent states were ensured provided by forcing
one of the annihilation photons to scatter earlier before measuring the polarization correlation based
on Compton kinematics. The comparison is made between the experimental setups used for the different measurements, and the results obtained are briefly discussed, highlighting the parameters that are
important in performing such measurements. Finally, the main features of the J-PET detector are presented, along with the schemes for performing similar studies, so that the conclusive results can be used
as remarks to solve the puzzle in question. Solving the decoherence puzzle will have crucial consequences
for basic studies of entanglement, as well as for the proposed application of the photon polarization in
positron emission tomography. If the correlation of the polarization of back-to-back photons from the
electron?positron annihilation is the same before and after the scattering of these photons, then it will
not be useful for the reduction of scatter fraction in positron emission tomography diagnostics.